The herbal medicine is an ancient art that deals with the knowledge of plants (herbs , medicinal plants, herbs, and spices ) , their cultivation, harvesting , storage and sale for medicinal purposes ( herbalism , traditional Galenic ) , cosmetics or nutritional .
History and culture
Since the dawn of time the herbs were collected and prepared to support the welfare and human health.
Furthermore , their presence in ancient tombs is a clue that they were attributed with magical and supernatural in Iraq, in a sarcophagus of 60,000 years ago have been found 8 different medicinal plants and even today the shamans of ' Amazonia and the healers of the Steppe constantly taking hallucinogens (such as Amanita muscaria ) , prepare decoctions, poultices , ointments and potions to cure the sick . The knowledge about the treatments was transmitted from one generation to another. It was in 3000 BC that appeared in the early writings , the oldest is the Ebers Papyrus , which lists many plants , tips for their use suitable , spells and magic . In the fourth century BC Aristotle argued that plants possess a soul , and it was with Hippocrates ( 460 BC ) that science began to separate from magic. Over the centuries, the flourishing of trade brought wealth of new studies and new knowledge .
Today we can distinguish , among others, three great traditions of herbal medicine :
The popular tradition of the Western world , based on experience Greek and Roman ; The ancient Indian Ayurvedic tradition ; Traditional Chinese medicine .
This cultural heritage , which began with the experimental use of plants by primitive peoples , which is used by modern science , with its methods of research acts to isolate the active principles and to identify the mechanisms of action of herbs , determined the birth of a "new herbal medicine ." traditional herbal medicine
The traditional herbal medicine was the prerogative of the housewives . They cultivated spices and medicinal herbs in their gardens or gathered in the wild . The used fresh or preserved seccandole , or extracted substances by putting them in an infusion of wine or grappa. Sophisticated galenic preparations were prepared by specialists or pharmacists. Their suppliers were herbalists who mostly gathered herbs in the wild. modern Herbals
The Herbalist in the course of industrialization modern society, has been modernized . The wild harvest of the past has been replaced by agricultural crops specializing in herbs and medicines.
Provided and supply their products to the industries :
food , cosmetic , herbal and pharmaceutical
The industry processes them in:
dietary supplements , health products , cosmetics, herbal products and phytotherapeutic drugs
Such specialization requires suitable formations . For example, many Italian University Faculty of Pharmacy , offering a degree course in herbal medicine ( the name varies depending on the faculty ) , which includes the basic knowledge of all products , processes, craft, industrial , commercial and consulting involved. Herbal medicine and herbal medicine
The herbal medicine was and is , as always, a form of therapy . It is adopted by educated doctors , naturopaths, complementary and alternative therapists , healers and people with no medical training . Industrially manufactured products are available in every pharmacy (such as " herbal " ) , of course dall'erborista (such as " healthy products " without therapeutic affinity , which is for the exclusive use of the pharmacist ) , and even in some supermarkets (such as " integrators " ) .
The advantage is the convenience and some guarantee of quality , the disadvantage is the cost and the fact that old cultures are lost craft such as:
horticulture of medicinal plants : cultivation of vegetables herbal Wild, collection and preservation of phytoremediation and more in the arts Galenical .
The Herbal Medicine is the medical discipline that uses plants and their derivatives for medical and therapeutic purposes . Many drugs (estimated approx. 1/3, with a tendency to ' increase ) are based originally on substances synthesized by plants and not in the laboratory. Since ancient times , doctors to head over to the herbaria make use of lists correlative between plants and their therapeutic effects.
Herbalist and Galenic
The name has to be searched by the name of the doctor Galenus . With Galen refers to the preparation of drugs and remedies starting from crude drugs or chemicals and auxiliary substances . They were and are still traditional galenic preparations , the art of chemists and pharmacists. Today is also called ' pharmaceutical technology ' , as the drugs are usually packaged prepared .
From about one hundred years using tables correlative between groups of active ingredients and plants that contain them.
Galenics phytotherapy requires great caution and experience to calculate and predict the amount of active ingredient contained in the plant derivatives used . In fact, this can vary greatly depending on various factors such as soil and climate of growing, harvesting method , storage conditions (eg drying ) and production of the remedy , in contrast to pharmacological remedy that is always certain (or almost) the quantity and quality of active ingredient employed , as well as their possible side effects . Folk medicine, collection storage and preparation
In folk medicine, herbal remedies are the remedy . The treasure trove of recipes is immense.
The collection of wild medicinal plants requires first accurate botanical and ecological knowledge . It does not take extensive training with regard to the knowledge of many plants . As in mushroom picking, we focus on the herbs that you know thoroughly . This can be learned easily , being part of groups that organize excursions accompanied by expert guides in herbal medicine.
E. Campanini, Dictionary of Phytotherapy, New Techniques, Milan, 2004 R. Carbone. Planta Medicamentum Naturae.Aromatherapy, Gemmotherapy and Phytotherapy, Good editions Villa, D'Agri (PZ) 2008. ISBN 88-901593-4-9 R. De Pasquale G. Grandolini, Pharmacognosy: Botany, chemistry and pharmacology of medicinal plants II ed. Springer F. Firenzuoli, Phytotherapy, Elsevier, 4th ed., Milan, 2008 P. Campagna, Plant Medicines, Minerva Medica ed. Turin, 2008 F. Firenzuoli, The 100 herbs of health, New Techniques ed. Milan, Roberto Della Loggia, medicinal plants for infusions and herbal teas, OEMF spa Milano 1993 T. Cecchini, Encyclopedia of Medicinal Herbs, De Vecchi Milan 1997 Alessandro Bruni, Marcello Nicoletti, Reasoned dictionary of herbal medicine and phytotherapy, Piccin Nuova Libreria 2003 L. P. Da Legnano, Complete Book of Herbs and Aromatic Plants, Mediterranean Editions 1983 Guillaume de Rougemont, Guide to common plants. For health and nutrition, Muzzio publisher 2002 ISBN 978-88-7413-041-2 Franco Bettiol, Irene Nappini, Enrico Nunziati, Herbal Medicine Vademecum, Kos 2014 edition ISBN 978-88-909587-0-0
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Alimurgia Phytotherapy phytovigilance Galenica Alimurgical herbs Officinal plant List of spontaneous medicinal plants Medicinal plant Aromatic plant Herbs collection Phytotherapeutic remedy

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